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Key questions include: What is language? How are first and second languages learned? What are various disciplinary approaches to SLA research? What are key trends and findings in SLA research? EDU Poverty and Education The influence of income on the well-being of children, youth, and families is pervasive and persists throughout the lifespan and across generations. In this course, we will come to understand how poverty impacts education through a systems approach.

We will also look at resilience and ways that children can avoid the negative outcomes of living in poverty. This course will pay special attention to rural poverty and how it differs from urban poverty. Application of theory and research to practice will be emphasized throughout this course. EDU Advanced Math Methods This course is designed for elementary teachers who wish to increase both their math content knowledge and the methods they use to teach math content.

Participants will increase their content knowledge in the mathematics they teach; increase their understanding of how children learn mathematics; increase their understanding of themselves as a mathematicians; increase their confidence as math teachers; increase their familiarity with the variety of math resources and materials available; increase their knowledge of the national math standards as well as the current research on math education; increase their ability to create a constructivist mathematics curriculum. They will use assessment tools in mathematics to identify and analyze achievement gaps, to monitor student growth, and to implement research-based intervention practices.

The students will study the research that continues to emerge effective intervention strategies and the challenges. They will learn about the critical role of professional development to keep abreast of current research. It is a prerequisite for the other three courses which will focus on content, instruction and supervision. Throughout each content strand there will be a focus on the strategies to create, adopt and execute professional development for teachers of mathematics.

The focus of this course will be:. EDU Changing Educational Organizations in a Diverse World This course is about understanding schools as organizations and how to change them to improve learning for all. It draws on literature about organizational behavior, culture, change, leadership, learning organizations and professional learning communities. It is designed to promote critical thinking about and planful action toward creating schools that are true learning organizations. The course begins with an overview of diverse models of organizations and moves to a focused examination of culture and its impact on organizational behavior.

Frameworks for understanding organizational change and resistance to change are then explored, followed by critical examination of leadership capabilities and skills necessary to lead successful school change efforts, including shared vision, inquiry-based use of data, and broad-based involvement and collaboration. EDU Supervision and Evaluation of School Personnel This course will provide prospective and practicing educators and school administrators with a working knowledge of relevant laws, policies, and regulations related to supervision and evaluation of school personnel.

The course promotes the development of effective educational leaders who are ready to build professional capacity of other educators.

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Major course topics include recruitment, hiring, mentoring, peer coaching, observation, data collection, and in-service training of teachers. Also included in the course are contract issues; staff discipline, non-renewal, dismissal; and alternative models for school leadership.

Students will complete the hour internship as required by the Department of Education for building leaders; and will be designed in collaboration with the student, the internship mentor, and the instructor of EDU The field experience will be combined with an applied research project in school leadership; and is designed to encourage the application of formal coursework to the leadership issues faced by school leaders. EDU Middle-Secondary Math Education This course includes methodological, curricular and professional issues in mathematics education, grades Focus includes the following topics: Teaching and preparing for Proficiency Based Education, response to Intervention structures and pedagogies; high school and middle school math content; use of materials; problem solving; use of technology; State Standards; professional development and leadership.

Particular attention is given to the use of instructional technology, and the application of how-we-learn brain research in the mathematics classroom. EDU Curriculum, Instruction, and Assessment I: Development and Planning for Digital Age Learners This course focuses on current research and best practice in the area of curriculum development, instructional design, and assessment techniques. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Educational Psychology Review, 16 3 , — Decreasing cognitive load for novice students: Effects of explanatory versus corrective feedback in discovery-based multimedia. Teachers need to gauge how much scaffolding to provide as individual learners become more knowledgeable and proficient.

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However, at any stage of development, learners benefit from strategically placed direct instruction, feedback, and critical questions that guide their learning Hmelo-Silver, Hmelo-Silver, C. When teachers give explanatory feedback, rather than corrective feedback, student performance improves Moreno Moreno, R. A common misconception is that reducing cognitive load is uniformly beneficial.

However, it is the source, rather than the level of the load, that matters.

Extraneous load, such as that caused by stress or trauma, negatively affects learning. Tasks should be engaging and challenging, so that germane cognitive load is as high as possible. What is helpful for an advanced learner, though, could overwhelm a novice. Knowing about the learner allows educators to design tasks and pose questions at the right level to enhance their learning. Teachers can reduce extraneous load by providing increased guidance for developing conceptual understanding during discovery learning.

This can be accomplished by providing explanations of central ideas and relationships at key junctures, offering useful texts, scaffolding the tasks by sequencing them from less to more complex, chunking the inquiry into discrete steps with instructions and information at each step, or having students write hypotheses, conjectures, or summaries that are the basis for conceptual discussion. The amount of guidance needed will vary across developmental levels and from learner to learner.

From the general to the situated: Three decades of metacognition. International Journal of Science Education, 26 3 , — Metacognition is part of a broader concept of self-regulated learning through which students are able to respond positively to feedback, set goals, and manage their progress towards these goals, which enhances their sense of agency. Metacognition is especially important as it moves students out of the role of passive receptors of information to active learners where they are aware of and monitoring their own understanding during the learning process Flavell, Flavell, J.

Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area of cognitive—developmental inquiry. American Psychologist, 34 10 , In order to enable transferable learning that is increasingly independent, teaching should be designed to support metacognition, so that students can learn to accomplish their goals. The use of metacognitive strategies has been found to distinguish between more and less competent learners.

Cognitive Science, 13 2 , — Teaching adolescents to become learners. The role of noncognitive factors in shaping school performance: A critical literature review. Teaching Metacognition and Strategic Learning. As Donovan and Bransford Donovan, S. Educators can develop metacognitive skills within the classroom through modeling of thinking, explicit strategy instruction, scaffolds for self-monitoring of thinking and actions, and regular opportunities for student self- and peer assessment. Opportunities for students to reflect on their strengths and areas of growth, and for students to self-correct errors can be incorporated into the curriculum within content areas, so that monitoring of understanding is tied to domain-specific knowledge and expertise NRC, National Research Council NRC.