On 7 May , he was awarded an honorary doctorate by Saarland University , Germany. It was organized on the occasion of the National Prize for Spanish Literature and included a total of seven conferences and four round tables that dealt with the works of Miguel Delibes. His last major work, El hereje The heretic ,  a tribute to Valladolid, was published in and was awarded the National Fiction Prize. The chair has its seat at the universities of New York and Valladolid , and has as its objectives to promote the study of contemporary Spanish literature, make this literature known in the United States and disseminate it through new technologies.
Following the publication of The heretic his writing career came virtually to a halt, mainly because of the colon cancer that affected the writer during the final phase of writing his last great novel. The book is a moving account of climate change. Although Delibes fought with the Nationalists during the Spanish Civil War, he was appalled by the level of repression, turned against Franco , and worked to restore democracy to Spain. During the early days of March his health worsened, and on 11 March, the writer was in critical condition, conscious but heavily sedated, and his family expected his death within hours.
His funeral was held in the morning of March 13 in the Cathedral of Valladolid. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is a rough translation from Spanish. It may have been generated by a computer or by a translator without dual proficiency. Please help to enhance the translation. Archived from the original on 30 June Retrieved 12 March Archived from the original on 8 March Retrieved 19 October El Norte de Castilla in Spanish. Retrieved 13 September Vadeando in Spanish. Archived from the original on 17 July Archived from the original on 2 July Retrieved 21 October Retrieved October 22, Archived from the original on 20 July Retrieved 22 October The Guardian.
Archived from the original on 10 December Archived from the original on 19 October Retrieved 13 March Retrieved 15 August Display Connectors, SL. RTVE in Spanish. Retrieved 14 March Universidad Complutense de Madrid in Spanish. Archived from the original PDF on 8 June Retrieved 20 November Ministro de Trabajo y Asuntos Sociales : Categories : births deaths 20th-century Spanish novelists 21st-century novelists Deaths from cancer in Spain Deaths from colorectal cancer Members of the Royal Spanish Academy Spanish people of the Spanish Civil War National faction People from Valladolid Premio Cervantes winners Spanish lawyers Spanish novelists Spanish male novelists Spanish people of French descent 20th-century Spanish male writers 21st-century male writers.
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Miguel Delibes. Recipient of the Prince of Asturias Award for Literature Though the response was massive, those early "works" were, in fact, a mere transcription and translation into Spanish of the oral literary corpus of the different ethnic groups of the colony including the Fang,the ndowe, or the bubi. Moreover, all the texts were identified by their ethnic origin such as "historieta pamue", "leyenda bubi", or "cuento ndowe".
During this interaction at the textual level collecting and transcribing, and translating , a new cultural product evolved, one which Mineke Schipper describes as "written orality", while Pius Zirimu prefers to call it "orature". Intermediaries started manipulating the traditional texts. They stopped transcribing and translating, and began incorporating, among other things, some elements pertaining to European literary tradition.
Though the "new" texts still relied heavily on oral tradition, they nevertheless acquired a more personal touch and a more autonomous form as Donato Ndongo-Bidyogo points out:.
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Since the act of translating from a source text to a target text is in itself an act of manipulation, therefore this process was not just limited to the thematic and structural levels. In resorting to the traditional literary corpus of their respective ethnic groups for inspiration, the first generation of Guinean writers were pursuing a double objective.
First, they intended to reclaim what Paulin Hountoundji calls their "Certificate of Humanity", by inserting an ethnological discourse in their texts through the repetitive description of their customs, rituals, traditions, and legends. Secondly, they sought to obliterate the subaltern and marginal structures in which Spanish colonial discourse had installed them by generating alternative objects of knowledge about themselves, their history, and their culture.
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Since the colonial space was authoritarian, unidimensional, monolithic, and a repressive environment by nature, Evita was very aware that he needed to make his discourse "understandable and acceptable" to the dominant order. This writing strategy misled censors and Carlos Gonzalez Echegaray who wrote in the prologue:. Mathama Jones' novel fervently celebrates the colonial situation, and it is strongly critical of the natives. It is part of what has been called literature of consent. It is also during this period that a new literary genre appeared on the cultural scene: poetry.
Guinean literature has followed a different path from African literature in French and English, a path also quite different for that of the special cases of Portuguese and South African literature. First, guinean literature was late to arrive to the African literary scene, and second,in Spanish Guinea, literature did not develop side by side with the nationalist movement for freedom from colonial rule. The Spanish colony was isolated.
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Linguistically, Guinea was in a predominantly francophone area, and geopolitically, Spain's policy of containment, along with tight censorship, kept Guinea cut off from the rest of the world. Translations of texts by other African authors or intellectuals were not allowed in the colony. My provisional conclusion is that there was not an anti-colonialist literature, i. Guinean journalist and writer Donato Ndongo-Bidyogo corroborates this view:. On October 12, , Equatorial Guinea gained its independence from Spain, nearly ten years after most sub-Saharan countries.
The independence of most sub-Saharan possessions in the early s, and the ensuing establishment of new institutional structures, had stimulated the emergence of a new political and cultural discourse described as National Project. The African Post-colonial reality had become the site for the emergence of national literatures and of what has been described as post-colonial discourses.
Liniger-Goumaz called the Guinean version Nguemismo. Originally, the African discourse of authenticity as a nationalist discourse stood as a critique and alternative to Western hegemony. Unfortunately, it deviated from its original purpose and took a very demagogic course. In some countries it became the instrument of neo-colonialism, or turned into a dictatorship in others.
Eventually it only benefited the ruling minority and failed to achieve political and economic independence. In the case of Equatorial Guinea, the colonial force was replaced with a new ethnic-based and ultimately exploitative force. Instead of liberation after decolonization , the new nation replicated the old colonial system of oppression and structures. Nguemismo , as an ethnic hegemonic discourse, was manipulated and instrumentalized as a mobilizing force that symbolized "national unity" against re-colonization and neo-colonialism.
It sought to institutionalize itself in order to achieve hegemony and legitimation through violent practices. As a new post-independent nationalist discourse, Nguemismo also engaged in the task of rewriting the National History Traditional and Contemporary by falsifying it. As part of that discourse Macias Nguema declared himself:. The goal of Nguemismo was to achieve total control of the public and economic spaces, and to render the rest of the social actors invisible by stripping them of their political culture.
English translation of 'librería'
Guinea became a monoethnic state. In other words, the nguemismo "fanguicized " the Guinean post-colonial reality by establishing what Ngugi Wa Thiong'o calls the "Culture of Silence and Fear". The borders of the country were closed and freedom of movement of the citizenry was restricted. Guinea became "una gran jaula" [a big cage],i. Throughout the Nguemismo, books and other publications were banned, private correspondence was examined, and foreign press was prohibited. Printed material became a lethal weapon that played and was used against those who generated it: writers.
Exile and silence became part of the post-independent Guinean reality. In the meantime, thousands of kilometers away in Spain, the discourse of resistance began to take shape. But it was a semi-clandestine and marginal discursive practice. On January 30, , the Spanish government declared Equatorial Guinea "Materia reservada", and a total blackout was imposed on all news about Equatorial Guinea.
Organized opposition to Macias regime was either restricted or in some cases, prohibited. This regulation stayed in effect until August 14, Produced in these precarious conditions, the discourse of the Guinean diaspora became a subculture which was disseminated through an underground and marginal circuit. It failed to reach the Guinean diaspora in Spain as well as the Spanish public.
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Nevertheless, that marginality was instrumentalized into a site of resistance. This is the context within which we must place the anonymous poem El cinco de marzo which appeared in El Molifugue informa 7 septembre , a bulletin published by one of the several organizations of the Guinean diaspora. The poem commemorates the violent appropriation of the Guinean reality by the nguemismo:. Guinean literature in exile relied mainly on poetry as a discursive platform of resistance, and revolved around two main themes: nostalgia that some of these writers described as "orfandad de tierra", and the traumatic experience of displacement.
The theme of "orfandad de tierra" was characterized by nostalgic evocation of Equatorial Guinea as a remote and prohibited space; however, most of the poems idealize the country through vivid descriptions of its vegetation, beaches, rivers, and climate, i. The second thematic area of this counterdiscourse explores exile not only as an experience of dislocation and fragmentation, but also as a process of cultural, political, linguistic, and economic deterritorialization.
Se me ha arrancado de lo que era mi realidad, mi existencia, mi cultura. This discourse reflects and denunces the violent and traumatic nature of Nguemismo which engaged in a process of systematic degradation and destruction of the Guinean body. In Epitafio , one of his rare poems Donato Ndongo-Bidyogo writes:. In some cases, the discourse of the Guinean diaspora used an aggressive language calling for the elimination of the despot as in.
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There were also a few texts in prose. Nueva narrativa. Raquel Ilonbe's Ceiba is the only text by a woman published during that period. Born Raquel del Pozo Epita from a Spanish father and a Guinean mother, she was taken to Spain when she was one year old, and lived there most of her life. Her experience of Guinea and the Guinean reality is quite limited.
She is the first female author of Guinean literature.