For many centuries, therefore, the figure of the translator has been associated with femininity and has constituted a space of codified social subordination see Maier Ultimately, both transla- tion and woman have travelled across parallel symbolic spaces. Nowadays, one as much as the other claims with increasing insistence a central place in language and culture, in research, in the collective imagi- nary.
We find ourselves in a time of paradoxes, contradictions and challenges. It seems that both women and translation studies have abandoned marginal spaces in order to settle down in a controversial social and critical central space. Women have found in translation a means of expression through which to re define reality, develop their expressive sides and affirm their creativity. Translation has found in women studies a wider horizon of individual and collective recognition, a prospect for effective equality between sexes, races and identities.
Both disciplines help to channel the same feeling of solidarity, the same creative drive. The concept of woman unites two activities translat- ing and writing which women —those who translate as well as those who are translated— claim as re writings, as creative and assertive acts. If in the past the intersection between woman and translation was a field in which preju- dices and social taboos were thrown, now it is a combative inter-discipline, which wants to transform marginality into a cultural value; the act of transla- tion into a militant gesture; and the construction of feminist identities into a plural exercise in political, sexual and artistic self-affirmation.
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The second part of this monograph Voices is an example of the wealth of associations between woman and translation. Since then three others have been pub- lished Camilla Adams Helminski, in ; Taheereh Saffarzadeh, in ; and Laleh Bakhtiar, in Without a doubt, this translating activity for women is a consequence, whether directly or indirectly, of the new social spaces women are occupying today. There are, however, remarkable differences between the different contexts of translation. For example, Umm Muhammad who lives in Saudi Arabia and Saffarzadeh who lived until his death in Iran maintain the most traditional and patriarchal aspects of the text that is being translated.
A First Spanish Reader
In contrast, Helminski and Bakhtiar, who live in the United States, try to use gender-inclusive terms, so as to imply a female presence in religious texts. In both cases, there are still prejudices and resistance, as made clear in the Liturgiam Authenticam pastoral instruction issued by the Catholic Church in , which condemns Bible translations made in the previous 25 years that did not follow the Vatican dictates in terms of language and inter- pretation see von Flotow This is a huge challenge for translators, due to the special treatment that classic Spanish drama gives to the issues of honour, female sexuality, the traditional subordinate role of women in the plot of the comedias, etc.
This study shows how these adaptations for the contemporary scene are a radical rewriting of the role of women in the Golden Age. These results challenge some of the no- tions —such as fidelity or reproduction— which have also been challenged by feminist translation, post-colonialism and deconstruction see Vidal , and they put us in a scenario where translation —through this deep diachron- ic adaptation— is transformed by women into a creation and transformation of the original, into a conscious manipulation of an entire historical period.
In the following article resounds the voice of a feminist, assertive woman translator. One of her major works was Women and Labour , a passionate, suffragist book that advocates that women need full access to edu- cation and work. The only Spanish translation was published in by Flora Ossette. The title, La mujer y el trabajo: The translator is pervasive throughout the Spanish text which, once again, contradicts the traditional stigma of the invisibility of all the translators. It is another example of the unstoppable process of re-reading and re-discovering the voices of women through translation, which again raises questions about the limits —which nowadays are very fuzzy— of the concept of translation, which is almost synonymous with the concepts of writing or manipulation.
It analyzes the various personal pronouns in which this lyrical voice is manifested, as well as their translations. This is a complete study, in- corporating various languages, which is attentive to every nuance that can be expressed concerning the female poetic subjectivity. The personal pronouns are sensitive loci from where we can reflect about the emotional and ideologi- cal values that each language associates with women and femininity. Both gender and translation studies have been dealing in recent years with the processes of discursive construction of identities, both male and female.
We have shifted from a static, universal consideration of categories such as femininity or masculinity —which von Flotow calls the first paradigm of gender and translation studies— to a second para- digm where identities are unstable, artificial, fluid constructions.
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These concepts, which come from gender studies, are still emerging in translation studies, thus often falling inadvertently into an essentialist ap- proach. For lack of critical tradition, many of the studies that revolve around the convergence between woman and translation would be in the first of the paradigms identified by von Flotow , including many feminist translation studies.
All identities are always unstable processes, in transition, governed by historical and socio-ideological conditions, which are the result of negotia- tions and discursive struggle.
Language and translation are, therefore, two of the privileged sites of struggle and conflict in shaping our identities. We are always defining —or shaping or modifying— our identities, and that is why both language and translation are two fundamental discourses in the 1. Its focus on discourse as the unit of analysis and its conception of identity as a process or a representation are its main features.
While in the past twenty centuries the metaphors that defined women and feminity were deeply sexist see Chamberlain , in the last two dec- ades the association between women and translation studies is generating new metaphors that see women as a positive force: Thus translation can help either to consolidate an identity or to demolish it, either to reinforce a stereotype or to disclose its artificial and contingent nature.
Assumpta Camps, in the first article of this section, focuses her study on the Chicana writer Sandra Cisneros, who lives between Mexico and the United States, on that border that is not only physical but that is also somewhere in between two cultures, two languages, two identities.
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Her literature is a hybrid product, showing a willingness to integrate both sides of the border, and able to transform the margins and the border into a critical space from which to re- flect on the construction of feminine identity. Translating the frontera narratives means, for Valenzuela, situating herself also in the same intermediate space: From these intersections, she can articulate a discourse as a visible translator, who aims at a symbiosis with the author. The border as a translatological metaphor see Godayol continues to show us the potentialities of translation as a creative and subversive activity.
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To this metaphor we can add many others that translators have been cre- ating in recent decades. All these figures highlight how the trans- lator is considered a mediator, and translation as a dialogue between cultures, languages, genders and identities. And, more generally, translation constitutes a subversive manipulation of conventional language and a way of representing the difference between the sexes and cul- tures. The author equates the activities of writing, translation and criticism, and in all three stands out the active and creative participation of women.
Vanessa Leonardi and Annarita Taronna present a discussion of the use of the so-called feminist translation strategies. As we know, the feminist theories of translation have bequeathed to us some well-known strategies of textual intervention: In this article, Leonardi and Taronna analyse in detail two works The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time  by Mark Haddon, and Or- lando  by Virginia Woolf and their translations into Galician, Spanish and Italian, and they assess the decisions taken by the translators.
Both men and women seem to move the texts they translate into their own ideological positions, their own sexual stereotypes: This is an area that deserves a great deal of reflection: Do men and women translate in the same way?
Do female translators manipulate the text? With perspectives that often contradict conventional wisdom, Robert has earned a reputation for straight talk, irreverence and courage. He is regarded worldwide as a passionate advocate for financial education. According to Kiyosaki, "The main reason people struggle financially is because they have spent years in school but learned nothing about money. I have stolen princesses back from sleeping barrow kings. I burned down the town of Trebon.
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